Flight Stress – How to Beat It

Flight Stress

Stress is a common problem when flying. Given the physical and psychological strain of flying, it is unsurprising that there are many people who feel stress for at least a period of the whole process of flying. Rushing to the airport through traffic, finding a parking space, negotiating luggage, finding your terminal and that’s all before the delays, cramped conditions, lack of sleep, oxygen deficiency and dehydration.

There are many factors which will contribute to a stressful flight. For many these can lead to air rage as a number of these factors overpower the individual to react aggressively. Those with a fear of flying, will inevitably experience further anxiety, given the psychological barriers they will have to confront. Medically speaking, irrespective of whether the stress is a product of aggression or anxiety, stress is the product of an increase in adrenaline and noradrenaline into the blood stream. Noradrenaline is produced in anxiety situations, whereas adrenaline is a means for our body to deal with aggressive situations.

If you are to deal with stress when travelling, then it is vital that you are able to reign control over the situation, by reducing the level of stress hormones in the body. This is particularly important, if you are often prone to fits of air rage, for the safety of both your fellow passengers and the air cabin crew.

Beating Stress

Beating stress when flying can be very difficult. Relax, take a deep breath and de-stress. The following tips should help you to enjoy a more relaxed and stress free flight:

Ensure that you get a decent night’s sleep before flying, as tiredness can compound stress. Planning ahead can help avoid many situations which contribute to a stressful journey. Make a note of the connection times for each leg of your journey, i.e. time of flight, time you need to check in (remember this is 2hrs or more prior to flight time for international departures), time you need to leave your house and so on. Very few people actually work out how long all the legs of their trip will take, leading to a last minute dash, which can only induce stress.

Always leave plenty of time to complete each leg of your journey. Remembering that you will be weighed down with luggage, and that airports are usually large crowded places with a number of stop points (luggage check-in ,immigration etc.) it is vital that you provide additional time to accommodate these possible obstacles. When waiting at the airport, try to relax your mind by reading a book or magazine, rather than getting wrapped up in any delays or crowds, which may begin to cause nervous energy released as stress.

Dissipate excess energy by taking a brisk walk on the morning of the flight, and whilst at the airport prior to flying. Avoid alcohol as this will only disorientate and tire you further. Drink plenty of water the night before and during the day of flying to avoid dehydration, you can also take a natural supplement such as Ashwagandha, that is known to help combat stress and anxiety. Take advantage of in-flight entertainment to distract your mind throughout the journey by listening to in-flight music or watching in-flight movies.

Fear of flying

Fear of flying effects a number of people, the very idea of flying invoking severe anxiety. Fear of flying or aero phobia is a fairly common phobia, which can be experienced to differing extents. It is, however, one of the few phobias which can reoccur after treatment.

At the low end of the scale flying is merely an uncomfortable experience, with a vague fear of flying; however at its worst, the concept of flying can lead to anxiety disorders. In the majority of cases a fear of flying is caused by a general lack of understanding, that flying is one of the safest modes of transport in the world. Far more so, in fact, than driving. Studies shows that middle aged people are more likely to be effected by aero phobia than the young and elderly. Woman show an overall higher likelihood to fear flying than men. Like all phobias, aero phobia is the product of a complex combination of factors. The main components of this fear are as follows:

  • Fear of heights, compounded by flying at altitude.
  • Fear of crashing due to adverse weather, mechanical failure or terrorist attack (accentuated post 9/11)
  • Fear of lost control. Namely a panic related attack, whereby the individual is unable to vacate the confines of the airplane if she has a heart attack or other medical condition.
  • Claustrophobia, in which the person feels trapped and fears suffocation.

The following video may appease some of your fears of flying:

Dealing with your fear of flying

There are various methods of treating aerophobics:

  • Take a course or read educational material to manage your fear, most airlines run courses for fearful flyers.
  • The medical profession provides psychotherapy through chartered clinical psychologists (UK) and cognitive behavioural therapists (US).
  • Stress therapy such as transcendental meditation is a useful alternative to clinical intervention.
  • Confronting the fear directly. This method, based on behavioural concepts such as desensitization, is practiced by many airlines.
  • The fear is gradually overcome through repeated confrontation of the object or situation.

Those who like to feel more in control of the situation may benefit from trying out a simulator in which they can experience ‘ piloting ‘ an aircraft for themselves.

Air Rage

“Air rage” (or sky rage) is the new label for extreme misbehavior by passengers on aircrafts. Frequently covered in the world’s media, cases of air rage and misconduct appear to be happening more and more. In reality, incidences of air rage are no more common than 20yrs ago, only now there is a heightened awareness within the industry to report such cases. Combined with a growth in the industry as a whole, the problem appears to be more acute, given that there is a now more of a concerted effort to recognize and deal with the problem.

Air rage is the product of several factors, which unfortunately occasionally collide. Reasons may include excessive alcohol consumption combined with a feeling of helplessness, both within the cabin and through being exposed to long delays, as well as general psychological feelings of lost control due to the stress and anxiety certain people feel when flying.

Many of these cases can be linked to aerophobia or ‘fear of flying’. The Civil Aviation Authority CAA, is trying to compile a database of incidents to assess the extent and reasoning behind air rage, ultimately to delineate possible solutions. Surprisingly, alcohol is not the main cause of air rage, with drunkenness only accounting for 25% of all incidents.  Instead anxiety through delays, cramped conditions and restrictions such as banned smoking are the leading causes.

Avoiding Air Rage

To avoid air rage during a flight, it is vital to relax. Tiredness is a major constituent of stress and rash, irrational actions. By ensuring that you get plenty of sleep on the night prior to flying, will automatically ensure that you are relaxed and less likely to be irritable.

If delays occur, take it with a pinch of salt, and avoid getting ‘caught-up’ in the situation. If you have to be back by a certain time or date, discuss with your airline alternate flights and routes available to you. Phone ahead and explain that you will be delayed. In short, deal with the problem rather than allowing the problem deal with you.

If you are delayed, accept it as a given. Shouting and violence will make not get you to your destination any faster. Go for a short walk, or read a magazine or newspaper. Don’t dwell on the situation, as this will only intensify your feelings of anxiety and stress. If you do like to drink during a flight, be aware that every drink at altitude will have twice the effect at ground level, so drink moderately interspersed regularly with plenty of water.

Jet Lag – And How to Prevent it

Jet lag can ruin the first few days of a holiday or act as a serious obstacle to the frequent business flyer.

What is jet lag?

Jet lag or desynchronosis is the temporary disruption of your ‘body clock’ when you fly across several time zones. This causes the traveller’s internal clock to be out of sync with the external environment. This internal body clock is actually a portion of the brain which controls the timing of you biological functions, which includes when you sleep and eat. These are known as the circadian rhythms, and are responsible for helping you wake up in the morning and sleep at night.

Causes of Jet Lag

When you travel across a number of time zones, the body clock goes out of sync with the destination time, and so it experiences daylight and darkness contrary to the rhythms it has grown accustomed to.

The body’s natural pattern therefore becomes upset as the rhythms which dictate when you should eat and sleep no longer correspond to the environment of your destination.

Jet lag occurs, because the body cannot automatically realign these rhythms. The speed at which you body readjusts itself to new daylight and darkness hours and eating and sleeping patterns is entirely dependent upon the individual. So while it may take a few days for certain people to readjust to a new time zone, others seem to experience little disruption to their body’s natural sleeping pattern. Additionally, there are supplements you can purchase the can help your body realign your body clock. Pure Nootropics Optimal Sleep Complex is one of our favorites, which combines ingredients that reduce sleep onset latency (the time it takes you to fall asleep) and does not cause you to feel tired and droggy, like many prescription sleep aids do. They even offers a non-melatonin version.

The symptoms of jet lag can be quite varied, though on the whole, an individual may experience fatigue, exhaustion, inability to sleep, disorientation, lost desire to eat, head aches, stomach aches and a general feeling of fuzziness.

Many cases of air rage often result from jet lag, as an overall feeling of disorientation can result in frustration and anger.

Preventing Jet lag

Jet lag is entirely dependent upon the number of time zones crossed, and not, as is often believed, the actual length of the flight. People tend to find that travelling east has the greatest effect upon the body. Jet lag is unlike all other sleep disorders, in that it is not caused by abnormal sleep patterns such as insomnia. In fact, those who live quite a rigid lifestyle, tend to suffer worst, especially if you sleep and awake at roughly the same time every day and eat your main meals at approximately the same time.

Travellers with less of a daily routine are effected far less by jet lag. Babies, for example, tend not to suffer from jet lag.

Studies carried out by NASA show that for every time zone a traveler passes, one day is required to fully regain your natural rhythm and energy levels.

Any of the following can also contribute to jet lag:

  • Alcohol: The effect of alcohol on the body is multiplied at altitude, so drinking even relatively small amounts of alcohol can compound tiredness and intensify hangovers upon arrival.
  • Solution: Avoid drinking alcohol the night before flying. Above all do not drink at all during the day of flying or while flying.
  • Dehydration: Air cabins tend to rely on recycled air via air conditioning units. This inevitably dries both the skin and can lead to dry nasal and throat membranes.
  • Solution: Drink plenty of water prior to flying and ensure that you carry a bottle of water with you the flight to regularly take small drinks from. An intensive moisturizer is also useful to prevent the skin from becoming too dehydrated and dry.
  • Headaches and a sore throat may become accentuated in such a dry atmosphere.
  • Solution: Again, it is essential to drink plenty of water before and during the flight to combat such conditions.
  • Pre-flight condition: If you start your flight stressed and tired, then it is unlikely that you will emerge much fresher.
  • Solution: A good night’s sleep prior to flying and some light exercising (maybe a brisk walk in the morning) will put your body in a far better ‘flight-condition’, ready to face the potential effects of jet lag.
  • Immobility: Prolonged period of immobility will naturally tire the body and invoke lethargy.
  • Solution: Keep moving, walk around the cabin at regular interval to keep the blood pumping around your body.

Update (2015): Here’s a great video on Jet Lag (suggested by one user):

Using Time Zones to prevent Jet Lag

By understanding how time zones are split up around the world, it is possible to create a strategy to prevent jet lag. It is best to arrive in daylight hours, as sunlight naturally alerts the body, consequently there is a greater likelihood that you will readjust to local time faster, and not sleep through the day.

Thus if you leave London at midday and travel for six hours west towards New York, upon arrival the local time will be 13:00 hours, though your body will still be set on London time, which is actually 18:00 hours, thus your body will start to anticipate darkness, an evening meal and sleep.

To counter jetlag, you need to now try and stay awake until the early evening, when you can enjoy a good nights sleep. By planning to arrive during daylight hours, this should be easier, than arriving during darkness.

If you arrive during the night, you will need to try and get some immediate sleep to be ready to start the following day in line with local time. Naturally, this can be difficult if the time your body is still adjusted to is daylight hours as you will probably not feel tired until the following day at your destination, when really you should be staying active.

By planning ahead your flight departure and arrival times, so that you arrive at your destination during daylight hours, it can be possible to significantly curb jetlag.

Time Zones

Flying across time zones is the main cause of jet lag. Our regular circadian sleep-wake patterns are upset when we fly, because different regions of the world experience daylight and night time at different times due to the curvature of the earth.

The earth is divided into 24 time zones each approximately 15 degrees wide, these constitute one hour in time difference. So, say we started in London (Greenwich Mean Time), and travelled across three 15 degree time zones, depending upon the direction we would arrive either three hours before (west) or three hours after (east) the time in London.

The meridian (middle line) for all these time zones is found running through Greenwich, London.

Directly opposite meridian line is the International Date Line. Here, both time zones meet and so we encounter the point where there is a difference in days, so that when it is light on one side of the earth it is dark on the other.

The international date line is not straight, to avoid creating different time zones with a single country, thus it zigzags its way across the globe.

Preventing Flight Problems

To ensure a safe and healthy flight, there are a number of things you can do, prior and during your flight to reduce the risk of accidents, illness and stress.

Things to do Prior to the Flight

Avoid any last minute anxiety attacks stressful journeys as a result of delays. Check roads are clear en route to the airport and that trains/coaches are running on time. Accommodate large walking distances at airports, crowded foyers and the fact that you need to check into international departures at least two hours prior to flight departure time. Save your arms and legs, by using one of the many free luggage trolleys dotted about the airport. If you are struggling ask for assistance from the airport staff.

Keep your mind active when waiting to board the flight by reading a book or magazine, this will combat nervous energy. Before getting on board the flight, go for a quick brisk walk to de-stress, reinvigorate your body and get the blood pumping around your body which can help reduce the risk of DVT. Avoid dehydration by bringing plenty of water with you. Drink it regularly before and during the flight. Intensive moisturizing cream is useful to prevent dry skin.

Stay Healthy: Things to do During the Flight

Avoid alcohol and caffeinated drinks during the flight as they will lead to dehydration and tiredness. Avoid eating a heavy meal during and before the flight as this can lead to an upset stomach given your relative immobility during the journey. Try to consume light snacks like a fresh salad instead. Keep moving throughout the flight, get up and walk about for 5 –10 minutes every hour. Stretch regularly in your seat and avoid sitting with crossed legs.

Tense and relax you leg muscles and place them on the foot rest as often as possible. Jiggle your legs in a seat position, and try doing a peddling motion – anything to keep your legs moving throughout the flight. Immobility can lead to DVT. Try pressing the balls of you feet hard down against the floor or foot-rest, as this can also help increase the blood flow in your legs, and therein reduce blood clotting which leads to DVT. Wear elastic in-flight socks which can prevent DVT.

When taking off and landing, try sucking sweets or swallowing. This will help equalize the pressure in your sinuses and prevent ear and sinus pain. Always carry all medication as hand luggage and have to hand in the case of an emergency. It is a good idea to carry a document outlining any allergies or special medical conditions on your person, in the event of an emergency. Remember, not everyone reads English, so if say you are flying from Mexico to Argentina, it is worth getting a translated version in Spanish.

Although very rare, British Airways estimate that one in 20,000 travelers experience a serious health problem whilst flying.

Minor Medical Problems

Many travellers are prone to a number of minor medical problems when flying, the majority of these are a product of the change in air pressure within the flight cabin. It is easy to forget, given the ease of travel today, that the most basic of flights essentially flings your body around the globe at both high speed and altitude into a different time zone.

It’s no surprise then that occasionally your body undergoes minor forms of discomfort. Although these are far from life-threatening, they can upset the start or end of your trip. We have detailed the most common minor medical problems associated with flying below.

Air pressure

When at altitude within the aircraft, cabin pressure in the body’s cavities expands slightly. This commonly occurs in the ears and sinuses, which may lead to slight ear ache. If you suffer from tooth decay, then small cavities may exist with the teeth which can result in severe pain. To relieve this pain, try taking paracetamol before and during the flight as a pain killer.

Air Quality

Air quality within aircraft cabins can be poor as the air conditioning frequently ‘recycles’ the air inside the cabin. If filters are not entirely effective, bacteria can spread as people cough and sneeze within the cabin – leaving passengers with minor colds and coughs.


A common problem of all flights is dehydration, as the air is not always properly humidified throughout the cabin. Travelers may suffer from the drying of the mucus of the mouth and nose, which normally act as a protective barrier to bacteria and viruses. To prevent dehydration, try drinking water as regularly as possible throughout the flight, don’t rely on getting enough water on the flight, and carry on a large bottle of water for yourself Dry skin is a further side effect of this dehydration, flying with a good moisturizer reapplied regularly to reinvigorate your skin a good idea, so that you arrive looking refreshed, rather than drained.


Extended periods of immobility can lead to swollen feet, aching joints and muscles and stomach pain from indigestion. The best remedy to these problems, is simply to keep moving throughout the flight, get up and walk around the cabin as regularly and as often as possible.

Flying whilst Pregnant

Pregnant women need not be restricted from flying. Most airline permit pregnant women to fly until the end of the 35th week of pregnancy, whereupon expectant mothers are strictly advised not to fly. Exact stipulations from airline to airline vary, and it is well worth contacting airlines in advance of flying to confirm their regulations. Some airlines, may request a medical certificate specifying the expectant date of delivery.

Tips for Pregnant Flyers

  • Pregnant women should also be aware that flying carries a greater health risk to the baby and mother than the average passenger.
  • The risk of DVT is greatly accentuated and DVT preventative in-flight socks should be worn.
  • Background cosmic radiation levels are also higher at altitude, which can be harmful to the fetus. Expectant mothers are, therefore, recommended to avoid flying during the first three months of pregnancy if possible.
  • Pregnancy, represents on of the most valid times to splash out on a business or first class ticket, especially if you are making a long haul flight. Leg rests encourage better circulation, and greater leg room will provide greater comfort, then the more cramped economy class.
  • Seat belts should be worn low around the pelvis.
  • Avoiding immobility for the duration of the flight is paramount for expectant mothers, as the viscosity of their blood tends to increase. Try walking around the plane at regular intervals.
  • Consume plenty of water throughout the flight and avoid the consumption of heavy foods which, through prolonged immobility, can lead to stomach cramps and pain.
  • Do not take sleeping tablets to circumvent jet lag, instead try to realign your sleeping patterns.

Flying With Kids

Flying with children introduces a new dimension to travel. Patience levels are short, so ensuring a smooth trip is difficult. Young children are particularly vulnerable to the rigors of flying and especial care and planning should be carried out to ensure a healthy trip.

Tips for Flying With Kids

  • Contact your airline in advance to see what provision they offer for small children, i.e. sky cots, baby food, toddler meals, children’s entertainment – cartoons, goody bags etc. Ask whether you can reserve seats in advance, so that you can guarantee that you are all flying together as a family.
  • Bring plenty of snacks for children, in case they do not like the in-flight meals. Always carry plenty of toys and games to prevent children from becoming bored and upset.
  • Allow plenty of time to do everything, allocate sufficient time to navigate the airport with children. Families are usually permitted to board the plan first.
  • To avoid accentuating tiredness, try and fly at reasonable day time hours, so that their daily schedule isn’t disrupted too much. Though tests show that young children are least affected by jet lag in a comparison study to adults.

If you have any helpful tips we forgot to include be sure to let us know by submitting an inquiry through our contact page.

What is DVT? Deep Vein Thrombosis

What is DVT?

DVT is Deep Venous (Vein) Thrombosis, more commonly referred to as ‘economy class syndrome’ in the media. Of late, DVT has gained accelerated notoriety in the world’s press as the general public’s awareness of the problem has became more prevalent. The link between DVT and long haul air travel was first introduced in medical journals in the 1950s which highlighted the potential risk long periods of immobility during long haul flights presented. Even today, there remains a great deal of ignorance surrounding DVT, despite the fact that more people are flying than ever before.

First and foremost, DVT is not a problem restricted to air travellers, and anyone travelling for prolonged distances by car, bus or train are at equal risk.  There is, in fact, no real evidence to suggest that air travel is responsible for an increased likelihood for DVT over any other situation where the condition may be arising.

In short, DVT is a result of extended periods of immobility (flights lasting in excess of five hours) which can lead to the development of a blood clot.

How to spot Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT)?

DVT is very difficult to spot, as the symptoms tend to be similar to a number of conditions. Nevertheless, a type of ultrasound examination called a Doppler ultrasound, can show how fast the blood is flowing in a vessel, and can help to indicate whether a person may suffer from DVT.

Symptoms may occur a few hours after travelling, or even days later, though the majority of people experience the above symptoms during the flight. It is paramount to note, that many people naturally experience swelling of the ankles during a flight, which is not in any way associated with DVT.

As you can see, it is often difficult to recognise the symptoms of DVT until the occurrence of a pulmonary embolism. There may, however, be no symptoms at all until the pulmonary embolism occurs. In the majority of cases, there is a pain in the calf with redness, swelling and tenderness. It is important to note that DVT is distinguished from blood clots in superficial varicose veins in the legs, called phlebitis which is far less serious.

The Symptoms of Deep Vein Thrombosis

DVT is most common in the lower limbs, whereby pain, swelling and discoloration of the affected region may occur. The leg may also show a congestion of superficial veins.

Unfortunately, these are only general symptoms and in the majority of cases, symptoms are hard to initially discern. Clinical diagnosis of DVT is difficult, and a specialist is usually required to confirm diagnosis, as the symptoms of DVT can closely match a number of other medical conditions. In extreme cases, a pulmonary embolism may occur, which is the result of small pieces of the clot detaching and being carried through the blood stream to the heart and lungs. The product of an extensive clot in the leg, this may happen several days or hours after the formulation of the clot. This may result in chest pains, shortness of breath and even sudden death.

Our blood clots naturally as a means of protection against the severe blood loss from damage to veins and arteries. Blood is supposed to clot only when it is outside the blood vessel, however, in abnormal cases, the blood can clot while still in the blood vessel.

Those at Risk of DVT

More and more people are at risk of DVT today. With an ever increasing number of long haul flights every year, so through this natural growth, the number of individuals likely to be effected by DVT has inevitably also increased.

All passengers are susceptible to DVT, economy and first class flyers despite being dubbed ‘Economy Class Syndrome’ ( though cramped seating often found in economy class may compound the possibility of DVT occurring). DVT is not, however, exclusive to long haul travellers, and any mode of transport which entails long periods of immobility may be responsible for DVT. Every year DVT occurs in about 1 in 2000 people in the general population, ranging from less than 1 in 3000 in people under the age of 40 up to 1 in 500 in those over 80.

Some people are more susceptible to DVT than others. As a general rule, the risk of DVT automatically increases for those aged over 40, with less than 1 in 3,000 people aged under 40 effected by DVT, but 1 in 500 in those over 80. This can also be compounded by one or more of the following risk factors:

  • Previous thrombotic episodes (especially pulmonary embolism)
  • Documented thrombophilic abnormality
  • Certain haematological disorders
  • Prior history or currently suffering from malignant disease e.g. cancer
  • Congestive heart failure
  • Recent surgery (especially lower limbs)
  • Pregnancy or recently had a baby
  • Post-thrombotic Syndrome
  • Chronic venous insufficiency
  • Hormone treatment (including the oral contraceptive pill and oestrogen) containing hormone replacement therapy
  • Recent major surgery or injury, particularly affecting the lower limbs or abdomen, especially hips or knees
  • Dehydration
  • Research has also suggests that smoking, obesity and varicose veins can also compound your susceptibility to DVT.

In addition to the above, when flying DVT becomes more of a risk factor if you experience:

  • Extended periods of immobility
  • A cramped position for the duration of the flight (this may include keeping a seated posture for the duration of the flight)
  • Dehydration as a result of alcohol intake.
  • Compression of the popliteal vein by the edge of the seat.

It is vital to keep a level head, if you are concerned that DVT is a hindrance to flying. If you have any concerns or doubt, consult your local GP or travel clinic for expert advise.
The aviation industry still reluctantly admits a connection between the increased risk of DVT and flying. Above all with regard to the general public, those at greatest risk are travellers who fail to move about and exercise during the flight.

Preventing Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT)

There are a number of ways to reduce the risk of DVT.

  • Always drink plenty of water to avoid dehydration.
  • Do not drink alcohol before or during the flight, as this can compound dehydration.
  • Try and keep your thighs clear of the edge of your seat. Use foot rests as far as possible.
  • Take a brisk walk for half an hour before the flight.
  • Regularly go for a short walk to the restroom to keep your legs moving during the flight.
  • Try a few simple exercises to keep your legs moving, by rotating your ankles, pointing your heel and toe alternately and lifting your knees whilst seated every half hour for a short period.
  • Try and tense your leg muscles as regularly as possible throughout the flight.
  • Wear elastic flight socks (elastic compression stockings) especially designed to reduce the risk of DVT. These are readily available at most pharmacies.
  • The day before the flight, take a low dose of aspirin (100mg – 150mg), during the flight, and for three days following the flight.

It is possible to treat DVT with blood thinning drugs (anticoagulants), including warafin and heparin. Low doses of aspirin are believed to have a similar effect, though its effectiveness in preventing DVT remains disputed. The treatment of established DVT is carried out by administering an enzyme which can dissolve the clot – Tissue Plasimnogen Activator (TPA). If you are known to be a high risk patient of (click here for more information), then it possible to stop the blood from clotting, via the injection of low-molecular-weight heparin. This is a anticoagulant, which thins the blood. It cannot prevent DVT if a clot has already formed.

Despite the serious nature of DVT, it is vital to stress that occurrences of DVT are very rare, and only a very tiny minority will ever need to take medication during a flight to prevent DVT. The best advice for all travellers, is to regularly carry out a serious of series of simple leg exercises which keep the leg muscles moving throughout the duration of the flight.

DVT Flight Socks

In recent years, following the widening press coverage of DVT, there have been a number of efforts to introduce DVT-preventative devices.

Recognised by a number of health experts, these elastic compression stockings represent one of the most accessible steps towards the reduction of DVT. Ultimately, it would be hoped that all long-haul carriers provided them for free on all flights over five hours.

By applying a gentle pressure to the ankle, they help blood to flow around the body by squeezing it up towards the heart, which assists the body’s circulation.

At present, flight stockings can be purchased at good pharmacies for around £11 or $16. Their manufacturers claim that they can be worn up to 30 times, and are available in several sizes.